FPV Acronyms and Technical Terms Explained

FPV Acronyms and Technical Terms Explained

FPV is stuffed with acronyms which is complicated (even the identify of the interest is the acronym of “first individual view”). Here is a glossary of most if not the entire technical phrases and acronyms utilized in FPV, or the RC interest typically. Let me know if I’m lacking any!

Acronyms Stands For Description
2.4GHz, 5.8GHz, 900MHz Hz = Hertz
MHz = Mega Hertz
GHz = Giga Hertz
Frequencies used in RC and FPV.
1S, 2S, 3S, 4S, 5S, 6S… S = variety of cells These numbers point out what number of cells in a LiPo battery. The greater the cell rely, the upper the nominal voltage. More Info.
2″, 2.5″, 3″, 4″, 5″, 6″, 7″ 2-inch, 2.5-inch, 3-inch, 4-inch, 5-inch, 6-inch, 7-inch These are propeller sizes, usually additionally used to described the scale of a quadcopter (as the most important prop it could actually help)More info
31mm, 40mm, 65mm These are widespread propeller sizes utilized in micro drones reminiscent of Tiny Whoop
AC Alternating Current The kind of electrical energy that comes out of your wall socket. Uses Live and Neutral, versus constructive and detrimental (+ & -)
ACC Accelerometer A tool that measures acceleration forces in a selected route.
Acro Acrobatic It means Acrobatic, or when referring to flight mode, it is means “charge mode”. More info
Active Braking AKA “Damped Light”, it is a function in BLHeli that improves throttle responsiveness.
ADC Analogue to Digital Converter A sort of circuit to transform analogue sign to digital sign; OpenTX has an “ADC Filter” choice to scale back stick jitters
AH Altitude maintain A flight mode that maintains top of the drone utilizing a barometric sensor (BARO), or ultrasonic sensor
AIL Ailerons Also often known as roll (It’s the letter “A” in channel map, TAER1234)
Air Mode FC firmware function that retains PID controller working even when throttle is at zero, what’s air mode.More info
AL Auto Levelling A flight mode that permits the copter to remain stage. It makes use of “ACC” sensor
ALT Altitude The vertical distance you’re from floor
Angle Mode A stabilized flight mode utilizing each gyroscope and accelerometer sensors; See Self-level mode vs. Acro mode
AP Aerial Photography Using a multirotor to take aerial movies and pictures.
APM Ardu Pilot Mega A sort of flight controller board
Arducopter A sort of flight controller software program. More info
ARTF (ARF) Almost Ready to Fly An ARTF or ARF mannequin is a pre-built mannequin that normally consists of all the pieces you must fly, besides the radio transmitter and receiver.
AUW All up weight The whole weight of a copter together with LiPo Battery and mandatory elements in an effort to take off, and some other peripherals
AUX Auxiliary Channels Channels along with these used for the management sticks – for instance, the switches, rotary controls and sliders. These can be utilized for altering flight modes & controlling peripherals
AWG American wire gauge An electrical wire measurement measurement, the bigger the quantity, the smaller the wire. More info
Band There are various VTX frequencies that are break up into bands, there are 8 channels per band. More info
BARO Barometric Altimeter It measures altitude through the use of barometric stress
BEC Battery Eliminator Circuit A voltage regulator present in some PDB, ESC, FC and VTX. They are designed to offer fixed voltage, e.g. 5V and 12V, for different RC tools reminiscent of FPV digital camera and radio receiver
BF Betaflight Betaflight is a well-liked fc firmware for racing drones. More info
BNF Bind and Fly A BNF mannequin is a pre-built mannequin just like an RTF, however minus the radio transmitter. You should have your individual radio and bind to it.
Bind The technique of pairing radio transmitter and receiver when first setting them as much as work collectively
BLDC Brushless Direct Current Motor Despite your quadcopter utilizing a DC battery, BLDC motors are to not be confused with the brushless motors on a quad, which truly run on 3 Phase AC.
Bootloader Special code saved in non-volatile reminiscence in a microprocessor that may interface with a PC to obtain a person’s program.
Brushed Motor A sort of motor that’s generally utilized in small multirotors, they’re usually powered by 1S batteries, and weaker than brushless motors
Brushless Motor A sort {of electrical} motor that’s generally utilized in multirotors. They have a variety of voltage enter, extra sturdy and highly effective than brushed motors. How to decide on mini quad motors
BuF Butterflight A fc firmware for racing drones
Buzzer A really loud speaker generally utilized in drones, for the aim of low voltage and misplaced mannequin alarms. More info
CC3D CopterControl 3D A sort of flight controller
Cell LiPo battery consists of 1 or a number of cells. Each cell has a nominal voltage of three.7V. In order to acquire greater voltage, cells could be linked in sequence inside a battery. For instance, a 4S1P LiPo has 4 cells.
CF – Carbon Fiber
– Cleanflight
It can imply 2 issues on this interest: carbon fibre, the fabric utilized in quadcopter frames; or Cleanflight, a flight controller firmware
Channel Video transmitters broadcast alerts on a selected frequency, and this frequency is a channel, every VTX can help a number of channels; Channel may consult with the controls on a radio transmitter
CLI Command Line Interface This is the Betaflight interface the place you possibly can enter command strains. For more info
COG or CG Center of Gravity The common location of the burden of a copter. It’s essential to ensure the COG of your copter is true within the center (or shut sufficient)
Curr / CRT Current A solder pad on ESC / FC for present sensor information
Crius A sort of flight controller board
CW / CCW Clockwise / Counter-Clockwise Describing the rotational route of motors or propellers
DC Direct Current DC is the kind of electrical energy that comes from energy supply with Positive and Negative (+ and -), reminiscent of a battery. In DC circuitry Negative is sometimes called GND, Ground or widespread.
DD Direct Drive A sort of prop designed to go straight on a motor shaft with out a gear discount.
DFU Device Firmware Update For some FC, firmware could be flashed by placing it in DFU mode
Diversity Receiver A a number of receiver FPV system picks the strongest sign from a number of video receivers and antennas to show one of the best image
DMA Some pins on a flight controllers have devoted DMA channels, some do not. Certain options in Betaflight require devoted DMA channel to work, reminiscent of DShot motor output. For instance, you would possibly be capable to remap motor output to another pins that do not have DMA channels, multishot would possibly work however DShot doesn’t work correctly, that is often known as DMA channel battle.
DOF Degree of Freedom Often utilized in FC advertising and marketing again in 2013, it offers clues as to what sensors can be found on the flight controller.
For instance 6DOF = 3 axis gyroscope (gyro) + 3 axis accelerometer (ACC);
9DOF = 3 axis Gyro + 3 axis ACC+ 3 axis magnetometer (compass);
10DOF = similar as 9DOF however with a further barometer
Drone An unmanned plane that’s guided remotely by a pilot. For navy use, these plane have weapons and/or surveillance gear. For private/leisure use, these plane usually have HD cameras. The time period is widespread within the media and could be deceptive typically. More info
DShot Digital Shot A sort of ESC protocol, what’s DShot. More info
DSM / DSM2 / DSMX These are the proprietary expertise of an RC tools maker, Spectrum, and DSM stands for “Digital Spectrum Modulation”.
DSSS Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum DSM makes use of Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) modulation method. As with different unfold spectrum applied sciences, the transmitted sign takes up extra bandwidth than the knowledge sign that modulates the provider or broadcast frequency. The identify ‘unfold spectrum’ comes from the truth that the provider alerts happen over the complete bandwidth (spectrum) of a tool’s transmitting frequency.
Dry Weight The weight of a multirotor together with all the pieces essential to take off besides the battery.
EEPROM Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory A sort of non-volatile reminiscence utilized in computer systems and different digital units to retailer small quantities of knowledge that should be saved when energy is eliminated, e.g.,static calibration/reference tables. Unlike bytes in most different kinds of non-volatile reminiscence, particular person bytes in a standard EEPROM could be independently learn, erased, and rewritten.
ELEV Elevator Also often known as pitch, it is the letter “E” in channel map, TAER1234)
EMI Electro-Magnetic Interference EMI is disturbance that impacts {an electrical} circuit as a result of both electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an exterior supply.
ESC Electronic Speed Control ESC is used to transform alerts from a flight controller or radio receiver, and apply the correct quantity of energy to the electrical motors. It additionally turns DC voltage into AC in an effort to spin up the 3-phase brushless motor. More info
FAA Federal Aviation Administration A United States Department of Transportation Agency, it has authority to manage and oversee all elements of civil aviation within the USA
Failsafe A mechanism to attenuate the injury to the multirotor, and close by objects in case of system failure. More info
F1, F3, F4, F7, H7 These are the completely different processors in flight controllers. More info
FC Flight Controller Flight Controller is the mind of your multirotor. More info
FET Field-effect transistor FET is a tool which permits us to make use of one smaller electrical sign to regulate one other greater one.
Flow A phrase usually used within the FPV interest to explain quick and clean flying with fashion
FOV Field of View A measurement how a lot atmosphere you possibly can see via a digital camera lens. Usually measured in levels.
FPV First Person View Utilizing an onboard FPV digital camera and wi-fi connection, to permit a pilot on the bottom to see dwell video stream from an RC plane whereas flying, via FPV goggles or monitor, More info
FTDI Future Technology Devices International The identify of the corporate that makes the digital chip customary, to transform USB to serial communications. Available as a chip for boards which have a USB connector, or in a cable to linked to breakout pins.
FW Firmware Firmware is an software particular software program designed for a selected piece of {hardware} / tools.
GCS Ground Control Station Software used to watch a Flight Controller Board. The OpenPilot GCS for instance.
Gimbal It can imply two issues: 1. a motorized digital camera stabilizer; 2. your entire stick management meeting inside a radio transmitter
GIT A model management system for software program builders.
GPS Global Positioning System Used to trace motion or maintain place at pre-defined coordinates
GND Ground Ground or Negative of a DC electrical circuit
Ground Effect Air turbulence from propellers bouncing off the bottom when the copter is hovering at low altitude
GYRO Gyroscope It’s a sensor on the flight controller that measures the angular velocity round 3 axes of house in levels (mainly, how briskly the drone is rotating).
This is among the most essential sensors, as the information is utilized in PID controller to maintain the drone afloat and to fly easily.
There are many sorts of gyros, some are sooner whereas some are noisier. More info
HEXA Hexacopter A sort of multicopter, that has 6 motors, no servos, all motors on similar stage.
HK Hobbyking One of the most important RC Vendors on the earth with warehouses in EU, US, AU, RU and China.
Horizon Mode This is a stabilized flight mode, just like Angle mode, but it surely permits the pilot to do roll and flip.
I2C Inter-Integrated Circuit A serial bus that permits a number of low velocity peripherals, reminiscent of sensors, to be linked to a microprocessor.
IMU Inertial Measurement Unit A Break Out Board containing sensors that reads and sends information to the flight controller
IntoFPV One of the most well-liked boards for FPV Multirotor: http://intofpv.com/
Jello Undesirable excessive frequency vibration in flight footage
JST A sort of battery connector for decrease energy micro drones
JST-SH A sort of small connector for decrease present functions, reminiscent of alerts
Kalman Filter The algorithm utilized in Multicopter Flight controllers. It is primarily used to mix accelerometer and gyro information to offer an correct description of plane perspective and motion in actual time.
KK Kaptein Kuk Multicopter controller by Rolf Bakke
LC FILTER L = Inductor
C = Capacitor
An LC filter is a circuit that reduces undesirable frequencies (noise) from an influence provide. A video feed wants secure energy to function optimally and an LC filter smooths the enter energy.
LED Light Emitting Diode One of probably the most environment friendly types of lighting.
LiPo Lithium Polymer Battery Aka LiPoly. It’s probably the most generally used energy supply for the RC interest lately due to its excessive vitality storage density-to-weight and excessive discharge charge. More info
LOS Line of Sight When you’re flying your plane by watching your plane instantly, you’re flying LOS. Another approach of flying is FPV.
Locked in A constructive description of a multirotor’s secure and on-rail flying efficiency
LPF Low-pass Filter A sort of digital filter that reduces excessive frequency sign. More info
LQ Link Quality Link high quality is a measurement of how good/dependable the radio hyperlink is in Crossfire. It’s completely different from RSSI. More info
mAh milli-amp per hour An unit that measures the capability of a LiPo battery
MAG Magnetometer An digital compass – used to let our FC ( Flight Controller ) know which route it’s pointed in, in comparison with the Earth’s Magnetic subject
MegaPirate A cloned flight controller software program of the Arducopter
Mode1 / Mode2 These are the completely different transmitter stick configurations: mode 1, throttle stick on the proper; mode 2, throttle stick on the left (extra extensively used). See RC Transmitter Basics. More info
MTOW Maximum take-off weight
Multishot A sort of analogue ESC protocol to interchange Oneshot
MWC MultiWii Copter MultiWii is a basic goal software program to regulate a multirotor RC mannequin. It can use numerous sensors however was initially developed to help Nintendo Wii console gyroscopes and accelerometers
NC Not Connected If you see a pin/pad in a connector labelled as NC it probably means “Not linked to something” or “not used”
OCTO Octocopter A sort of multicopter, that has 8 motors, no servos, all motors on similar stage.
Oneshot Oneshot125 A sort of analogue ESC protocol to interchange PWM
Opto ESC Opto ESC is a typical saying for ESC with out BEC
OSD On Screen Display A bit of {hardware} that overlays flight information in textual content or graphical type over an present dwell stream video.
P Battery cells in parallel For instance, a LiPo battery of 4S2P, has two 4S batteries linked in parallel.
Payload What the drone can carry/elevate, reminiscent of a digital camera, or bundle
PAL / NTSC These are video codecs in FPV cameras and your video show. More info
PCB Printed Circuit Board Silicon board with copper traces and parts soldered onto it. Most electronics on this interest are constructed on PCB’s, reminiscent of FC, VTX, TX, RX….
PDB Power distribution board A board designed to hold excessive present, it is constructed with copper traces used to attach numerous digital parts reminiscent of LiPo battery, ESCs, Video transmitter, LEDs and so on
PID Proportional Integral Derivative The three parameters that you could regulate to alter the copter’s flight efficiency. In principle PID is a management loop that makes an attempt to attenuate the distinction between a measured course of worth and its desired worth by adjusting the management enter of a course of.More info
PNP Plug and Play A PNP quadcopter equipment normally comes with out the receiver, transmitter, battery and FPV Goggles.
PPM SUM (CPPM) Pulse Position Modulation A approach of sending sequence of a number of alerts down one sign wire. More info
Prop Propeller Short for propeller.
Punch Sudden burst of thrust.
Punch out Ascending vertically at 100% throttle.
PWM Pulse Width Modulation The square-wave alerts utilized in RC management to drive servos and velocity controllers.
Quad Quadcopter Short for quadcopter, which is a kind of multicopter that has 4 motors on the identical stage
Rate Rate adjustments how briskly your copter rotates with the sticks. More info
Rate Mode A.Okay.A. Acro Mode, and Manual mode. It’s a flight mode that solely makes use of the gyro sensor. More info
RC Radio Control The basis of our interest, it is also used to consult with the interest as a complete, radio managed automobiles, multirotor, planes boats and extra.
RCG RCGroups One of the most well-liked RC boards on the earth.
Revo Revolution The third era of OpenPilot Controllers
RF Radio Frequency Common radio frequency within the FPV interest are 2.4gHz, 900mHz and 433mHz. More info
RPM Revolutions Per Minute The variety of motor rotations in 60 seconds.
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indication RSSI is a measurement of how good your radio sign is. More info
RTF Ready to Fly An RTF mannequin is a pre-built mannequin that is offered with all the pieces you will want in an effort to fly proper out of the field.
RTH Return to Home A GPS function that when enabled, it returns the plane to the “house” place the place it took off.
RTL Return To Launch Same as RTH.
RUD Rudder Also often known as yaw, it is the letter “R” in channel map, (TAER1234)
RX “Radio Receiver” or the “RX pin in a UART” A tool that receives instructions from the radio transmitter, and sends them on to the servos or flight Controller. More info.
RX may imply the receiving pin in a serial connection on a flight controller. More info
S Cell Count – “Cells linked in sequence” For instance, a 4S LiPo is a LiPo battery with 4 cells linked in sequence, nominal voltage is 14.8V (4×3.7).
SA Smart Audio Smart Audio is a protocol for VTX Control. More info
SBUS SBUS is a kind of serial communication protocol utilized by Futaba and FrSky. It helps as much as 16 channels utilizing just one sign cable. More info
SF Slow fly A sort of propellers which are designed to go on a motor utilizing a gear discount to decrease rotational velocity
SimonK An ESC firmware designed for multirotors, however now not up to date and now out of date
SMA / RP-SMA Sub-Miniature Version A
Reverse Polarity SMA
Connectors for FPV tools. More info
TAER1234 A sort of radio channel mapping. It means mapping throttle as channel 1, Aileron as channel 2, Elevator as channel 3, and Rudder as channel 4
Telemetry A function that permits you to obtain actual time flight information from the plane again to you; It’s generally seen in radio TX and RX, there are additionally standalone units for telemetry
Throttle One of the controls in your radio transmitter, it adjustments the velocity of all of the motors in a drone. It’s the letter “T” in channel map, (TAER1234)
Thrust The drive generated by the propellers and motor, measured in grams
Tiny Whoop A category of extremely small quadcopters with ducts (propeller guards). More info
Toothpick A category of small quadcopters, aka ultra-light micro quad, normally outfitted with 2.5″ or More info3″ propellers.
TOW Take off weight Similar to AUW
TRI Tricopter A sort of multicopter that has 3 motors and a servo for yaw management.
TVL TV Line TVL (TV Lines) is mainly a measure of how good the FPV digital camera decision is. The quantity is predicated on what number of alternating black and white strains could be displayed in its picture horizontally.
TX “Transmitter” or the “TX pin in a UART” TX, or radio transmitter, is a tool that sends person instructions to the Receiver. More info.
TX may imply the transmitting pin in a serial connection.
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter Serial communication port. A bit of pc {hardware} that interprets information between parallel and serial type.More info
UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Aircraft with out a human pilot onboard. Control is supplied by an onboard pc, distant management or mixture of each.
UBEC Universal Battery Elimination Circuit Basically only a DC voltage regulator.
Vcc Vcc Positive energy provide enter
VRX Video Receiver A tool that receives video sign from our video Transmitter, and show the dwell footage on our FPV goggle or display.
V-tail A sort of multirotor that has 4 motors, 2 tail motors type a V form, it has no servo.
VTOL Vertical take off and touchdown
VTX Video Transmitter A tool that sends video sign from the FPV digital camera, to video receiver / FPV goggles. More info
WOT Wide Open Throttle 100% throttle
X8 A sort of multirotor that has 8 motors and of a form of X, 4 motors on prime, 4 motors at backside, no servo
XT30 A sort of battery connector for micro FPV drones. It’s smaller than XT60.
XT60 The most typical kind of battery connector for FPV drones. The quantity signifies present ranking and measurement, it is bigger than XT30 however smaller than XT90. More info
XT90 A sort of battery connector for giant FPV drones. It’s bigger than XT60.
Y4 A sort of multirotor that has 4 motors, 2 tail motors one on prime of the opposite, it appears like a tricopter however has no servo

Edit History

  • Feb 2015 – Post created
  • Apr 2018 – Updated record with plenty of new technical phrases
  • Jan 2020 – Added DMA, props sizes, toothpick and tiny whoop
  • Jun 2020 – Added “search” function
  • May 2021 – up to date featured picture and a few phrases